Sources of Finance for Education.

There are multiple sources of finances for education in India. The funds for higher education mainly come from three different sources viz. government, fee income from students and other sources of income from philanthrophy, industry, sale of publications, etc. Reliance on government for resources has almost doubled right from the first plan. On the other … Continue reading Sources of Finance for Education.

The Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism.

Let us first, however, outline the Noble Eightfold Path for it is this path of righteousness and wisdom that really constitutes the essence of Buddhist practice — the mode of living and thinking to be followed by any true follower of the Buddha’s teachings. 1. The first stage of the Eightfold Path is Right Understanding, … Continue reading The Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism.

Behavioral Guidelines Regarding the Dhamma.

Countless and lasting benefits are received from Dhamma practice. Certain basic modes of behavior express our gratitude for these benefits. As our awareness of the sacred nature of all objects and relationships connected to the Dhamma increases, various rules of behavior are integrated into a natural and unselfconscious way of being. Until that time, the … Continue reading Behavioral Guidelines Regarding the Dhamma.

Rules for Happy and Healthy Life in Buddhism.

‍ Here are some of the ways that lay practitioners can benefit themselves and others by bringing their practice into their daily lives: A. GENEROSITY : This involves the giving of material things for instance, to support Monks and Nuns, to give to the poor, the hungry, or the needy, and so forth. There is … Continue reading Rules for Happy and Healthy Life in Buddhism.

Some Salient Characteristics of Buddhism.

1. Buddhism is a moral and philosophical system that expounds a unique path to Enlightenment and is not a subject to be studied from a mere academic standpoint. 2. Buddhism is based on personal experience. As such, it is rational and not speculative. 3. The Buddha discarded all authority and developed a Golden Mean that … Continue reading Some Salient Characteristics of Buddhism.

Micro Teaching: Meaning, Characteristics, Steps , Advantage and Disadvantages.

A. Meaning: Micro teaching represents an appropriate innovative technique for helping the pupil teacher’s being trained in the colleges of education in their acquisition of the desired teaching skills. We can define micro teaching as a sort of specialized training technique that provides appropriate opportunities to the pupil teachers for the practice and development of … Continue reading Micro Teaching: Meaning, Characteristics, Steps , Advantage and Disadvantages.

Role Playing: Meaning, Steps , Advantages and Disadvantages.

A. Role Playing is considered a kind of an assumption or initiation of a particular appearance or form.It is a a strategy where pupil teachers have to imitate the act or role of student, teacher, parents, community members and observer. The essence of role playing is the personal experiencing of emotions, and perceptions by assuming … Continue reading Role Playing: Meaning, Steps , Advantages and Disadvantages.

The Abbott Wood Report of 1937 on Teacher Education.

This report submitted in 1937 is again a landmark in the field of education. It primarily analyzed the position of vocational education but also made valuable suggestions about teacher education. According to the report the duration of training should be 3 years to enable the pupil to continue with general education along with professional training. … Continue reading The Abbott Wood Report of 1937 on Teacher Education.

Professional Obligations of Teachers.

Obligation is a responsibility which an individual imposes on himself. It is ethical and in the line of duty. A professional when follows rules and regulation and correctly interprets it for the progress of humanity. It creates a sense of brotherhood which makes others respect that individual and his profession. All this is done selflessly … Continue reading Professional Obligations of Teachers.

Needs of Professional Ethics.

For self correction : Man and his thinking keep changing. It is human to tend towards comfortability, selfishness, laziness and money. It is difficult to follow and abide by truth, hard work, simple living, honesty etc. As a result individual turns towards the easier ways of life without thinking what effect will it have on … Continue reading Needs of Professional Ethics.

Teacher Education as a Profession.

Teachers play a vital role in the improvement of the quality of education. In any assessment of the educational system, it is important to know whether there are enough teachers, who are not only well qualified to each different subjects, but are also able to cope with the changing curriculum and growth in knowledge. It … Continue reading Teacher Education as a Profession.

Characteristics of a Profession.

The list of characteristics that follows is extensive, but does not claim to include every characteristic that has ever been attributed to professions, nor do all of these features apply to every profession :1. Skill based on theoretical knowledge : Professionals are assumed to have extensive theoretical knowledge (e.g. medicine, law, scripture or engineering) and … Continue reading Characteristics of a Profession.

TRENDS IN RESEARCH IN TEACHER EDUCATION.

Quantitative Leap : The first study reported in Teacher Education was by Banerji in 1956. After the first study was reported the First Survey reported 45 studies on Teacher Education up to 1973. The Second Survey during the next five years i.e. up to 1978 reported 65 studies. During the period 1978 to 1983, 116 … Continue reading TRENDS IN RESEARCH IN TEACHER EDUCATION.

Problems of Research in Teacher Education.

There has not been much headway in research since the researchers face a number of problems. More research is needed in the area of teacher education and there needs to be qualitative improvement too. Problems of research are both intrinsic and extrinsic to the researcher. Following are some of the glaring problems of research in … Continue reading Problems of Research in Teacher Education.

Concepts of Globalization and Education.

Concepts: Globalization is a much talked about term today and has become a phenomena, which is greatly affecting the society in general and different nations in particular. Globalization is the integration of economic, political and cultural systems and trends across the world for economic growth, prosperity and democratic freedom. It pursues liberal or free market … Continue reading Concepts of Globalization and Education.

National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration as an Agency of Teacher Education.

‍National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration:A. Functions :As the highest organization of educational planning andAdministration- has the following functions to perform:1. Providing training of educational planning and administration todevelop the abilities and competencies in the educationaladministration as the in-service program.2. Providing training facilities in educational planning andadministration at state level and regional level to … Continue reading National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration as an Agency of Teacher Education.

OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION AT PRIMARY LEVEL.

Teacher Education for primary level : Elementary education, which makes a significant contribution to national development, occupies a crucial position in the system of education. It admits mainly the children coming after completing pre-school education, children from educated families, the first generation learners and from the neglected and oppressed sections of the society. It is … Continue reading OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION AT PRIMARY LEVEL.

University Grants Commission (UGC) as an Agency of Teacher Education in India.

Established on 28th December, 1953, at New Delhi. UGC was given autonomy by govt. of India in 1956. A. Functions : 1. It provides financial assistance to universities and colleges to meet their requirement. 2. It extends the financial aid for the development of Universities and maintenance. 3. It provides a guide-line to Center and … Continue reading University Grants Commission (UGC) as an Agency of Teacher Education in India.

OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMME AT SECONDARY LEVEL AS RECOMMENDED BY THE NCTE .

Introduction:In the recent years India has taken a fresh and more critical look at the role of education within the context of overall national development. The goals of education follow the national goals of development. This means development of the human resources.The development of human resources is possible through a properlyorganised programme of education.It is … Continue reading OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMME AT SECONDARY LEVEL AS RECOMMENDED BY THE NCTE .

Privatization: It’s Concepts, Advantages and Disadvantages.

A. Concept of Privatization :Privatization connotes a wide range of ideas. Privatization implies induction of private ownership, management and control of organizations. Privatization can imply deregulation meaning therebylesser control of the government. It refers to expansion of privatesector and reduction of public sector. It also means that areas reserved for the public sector will be … Continue reading Privatization: It’s Concepts, Advantages and Disadvantages.

Factors Responsible for Privatization of Higher Education.

A. Factors Responsible for Privatization of Higher Education (Need for Privatization) : 1. Need for competitive efficiency: Main justification for privatization rests heavily on the grounds of efficiency to promote a more competitive economic environment. Operation of public sector enterprises is considered inefficient. It is believed that private ownership and control are more efficient in … Continue reading Factors Responsible for Privatization of Higher Education.

Issues and Problems and Suggestions of Teacher Education.

A. Introduction: There are many problems and issues plaguing the system of teacher education. Teacher preparation has been a subject of discussion at all levels, from the government, ministries, regulatory bodies, schools, to teachers themselves. B. ISSUES IN TEACHER EDUCATION: Major issues in teacher education concern the following: Proliferation of Colleges of Education. Isolation of … Continue reading Issues and Problems and Suggestions of Teacher Education.

OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMME AT TERTIARY LEVEL.

The Role of teacher is becoming more specific and specialized and yet demanding in the new world order on account of the explosion of knowledge. This would mean the need for increased professionalism among the incoming teaching community. If the objectives have to reflect the new national and international needs will have to be integrated … Continue reading OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION
PROGRAMME AT TERTIARY LEVEL.

ROLE AND COMPETENCIES REQUIRED OF TEACHERS AT HIGHER SECONDARY LEVEL.

1) Manager: Teacher manages human resources i.e. students as well as material resources i.e. Equipment, Facilities etc. As dealing with students teachers should reach out, share, show concern, help to get realistic goals & face the failure. 2) Facilitator: Developing life skills like decision making, problem solving, Critical thinking etc. Cope with rapidly increasing knowledge … Continue reading ROLE AND COMPETENCIES REQUIRED OF
TEACHERS AT HIGHER SECONDARY LEVEL.

ROLE AND COMPETENCIES REQUIRED OF THE TEACHER AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL.

At secondary level consolidation takes place and also students are prepared for the future life.The aim of secondary education is developing leadership, democratic citizenship, self – reliant skills, political ability and social values. The different roles teacher performs at the secondary level are :1) Manager:As a manager teacher develops human resources i.e. students bycreating interest … Continue reading ROLE AND COMPETENCIES REQUIRED OF THE TEACHER AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL.

OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION AT THE HIGHER SECONDARY STAGE AS RECOMMENDED BY NCTE.

A. ACADEMIC STREAM:A. To develop among teachers an acceptable desired perspective about academic stream and understanding of its nature, purpose and philosophy,B. To make them aware of the philosophy, purpose and teaching learning strategies of the subjects they have to teach.C. To empower them to make indepth pedagogical analysis of the subjects they have to … Continue reading OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION AT THE HIGHER SECONDARY STAGE AS RECOMMENDED BY NCTE.

OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION AT PRE-PRIMARY LEVEL.

‍Teacher Education for primary level : Elementary education, which makes a significant contribution to national development, occupies a crucial position in the system of education. It admits mainly the children coming after completing pre-school education, children from educated families, the first generation learners and from the neglected and oppressed sections of the society. It is … Continue reading OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION AT PRE-PRIMARY LEVEL.

National Council of Educational Research and and Training as an Agency of Teacher Education.

A. Introduction : Due to knowledge explosion, there is a spread of education not only in India, but all over the world. Due to this change, social needs have changed accordingly.A teacher is expected to face the new changes by undergoing through training for new trends in education. Such training - needs are satisfied by … Continue reading National Council of Educational Research and and Training as an Agency of Teacher Education.

National Council of Teacher Education as an Agency of Teacher Education.

National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE) : Kothari commission Report (1964-66) criticized Teacher Education Programme being conventional, rigid and away from reality. Therefore it expressed the need of establishing National council of Teacher Education in order to improve the standard of Teacher Education. In September 1972, Central Advisory Board in Education accepted the said proposal … Continue reading National Council of Teacher Education as an Agency of Teacher Education.

Curriculum and Course of Study in America.

The aim of the curriculum of teachers Colleges as well as Colleges of Education is to impart all round comprehensive education for the prospective teachers. Their function is to integrate general and professional courses with a view to provide sufficient grounding in the subject-matter as well as the art of teaching. In most of the … Continue reading Curriculum and Course of Study in America.

Types of Teacher’s Training Colleges in America.

Teacher Training schools or colleges in America may be divided into two categories (i) Public and (ii) Private.The Public institutions are financed and controlled by the Government while the Private institutions are run and managed by private organizations. Most of the institutions are Public since because of heavy cost of such institutions a large number … Continue reading Types of Teacher’s Training Colleges in America.

OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN USA.

(1) To develop the teacher-education programme in accordance withthe democratic way of life.(2) To provide an open-environment to the pupil-teachers, so that anappropriate development of their personalities can be made.(3) To provide the theoretical and practical awareness about theteaching-learning process.(4) To develop the skills and competencies of teaching, methods,techniques. and teaching aids.(5) To prepare separate … Continue reading OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN USA.

Government of India Resolution on Education Policy, 1913.

This is one of the most important educational documents which laid down the policies for the future educational system. It made some very vital suggestions for the improvement of the teacher-training Programme. These were: (a) Training Colleges:The Resolution enunciated that if Secondary Education wasto be improved then the teachers should be trained in the art … Continue reading Government of India Resolution on Education Policy, 1913.

Teacher Education During Upanishadic Period.

THE UPANISHADIC PERIOD :In the Vedic India, the teacher enjoyed a special status and position. He was held in high esteem by the society and this was due not only to learning and scholarship, but also to qualities of head, heart and hand. The Guru or the teacher was an embodiment of good qualities, a … Continue reading Teacher Education During Upanishadic Period.

Teacher Education During Medieval Period.

THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD :In the holy Koran, Education is urged as a duty and in Muslim countries, education was held in high esteem. Though it was not widespread amongst the people teachers and instructors were given great respect. The Mohammedan rulers in India founded schools (Maktabs), Colleges (Madrassahs) and libraries in their dominions. In the … Continue reading Teacher Education During Medieval Period.

A Brief Life Sketch of Manabendra Narayan Larma Chakma.

M.N LARMA CHAKMA Manabendra Narayan Larma (September 15, 1939 - November 10, 1983), also known as M.N. Larma, was a Jumma Chakma politician and Member of Parliament of Bangladesh. A leading proponent of the rights of the people of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, he was the founding leader of the Parbatya Chattagram Jana Samhati Samiti … Continue reading A Brief Life Sketch of Manabendra Narayan Larma Chakma.

Know About Chakma Autonomous District Council and It’s Basic Features.

Formation:The Chakma Autonomous District Council came into being with the re-organisation of the Pawi―Lakher Regional Council on 2nd April 1972 and subsequent elevation to the status of Autonomous District Council on this day 29th April 1972 under Sixth Schedule to the constitution of India. The re-organisation of the Pawi-Lakher Regional Council happened following amendment of … Continue reading Know About Chakma Autonomous District Council and It’s Basic Features.

Important factors in building up of nationalism in India.

Important factors in building up of nationalism in India: 1. Understanding of Contradiction in Indian and Colonial Interests: The nationalist movement arose to take up the challenge of these contradictions inherent in the character and policies of colonial rule. 2 Political, Administrative and Economic Unification of the Country: A professional civil service, a unified judiciary … Continue reading Important factors in building up of nationalism in India.

Impact on Urban Sociology.

Impact on Urban Sociology: As could not be denied, we are facing today, urban crisis as per the following: a) The massive of scale migration from mostly rural to urban centres as a consequence of ‘pull’ and ‘push’ factors and the fundamental right of the people to settle in any part of the country could … Continue reading Impact on Urban Sociology.

Sociology is a Science.

According to Comte and Durkheim, “Sociology is a science because it adopts and applies the scientific method. Sociology does make use of scientific methods in the study of its subject matter. Hence Sociology is a science. It is a science because of the following reasons. (1) Sociology pursues scientific method: Sociology studies social reality with … Continue reading Sociology is a Science.

Emergence of sociology as a profession in India.

Emergence of sociology as a profession in India: Sociology emerged as a separate academic discipline in Indian universities in the 1st half of 20th century. At the beginning it was associated with Anthropology. However, the growth of sociology and anthropology passed through three phases such as. 1. First phase - 1773-1900. 2. Second phase - … Continue reading Emergence of sociology as a profession in India.

Challenges for Financing Higher Education.

Challenges for Financing Higher Education are as following: 1. Difficult to define Higher Education: In India, Defining Higher Education is difficult task, because it is considered to be a quasi-public good. It is a public good because the benefits out of it largely affect society through human capital formation and knowledge. However, it is also … Continue reading Challenges for Financing Higher Education.

Characteristics and Importance of Cost Benefit Analysis

Characteristics of Cost Benefit Analysis: Learners, you have already learnt that Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) is a technique of evaluation which measures all the cost and benefit related things of a program, plan or project in terms of money. It brings objectivity into decision making regarding the allocation of available resources. Here we have listed … Continue reading Characteristics and Importance of Cost Benefit Analysis

Features and Importance of Manpower Planning.

Features of Manpower Planning : Following are the salient features of manpower planning: I. It is future-oriented: Human resource planning is forward-looking. It involves forecasting the manpower needs for a future period so that adequate and timely provisions may be made to meet the needs. II. Manpower planning is a continuous process: Human resources planning … Continue reading Features and Importance of Manpower Planning.

Concepts , Characteristics and Role of the Education in Human Capital Formation.

A. Concept of Human Capital Formation: The term human capital refers to the knowledge, skills, and competencies and productive embodied in individuals that are relevant to economic activity and it is described as accumulation of human capital in economic terms. Human capital has been defined by the World Development Report, 1995 as the skills and … Continue reading Concepts , Characteristics and Role of the Education in Human Capital Formation.

Role of Education in Economic Development.

Role of Education in Economic Development: Dear Learners, the relationship between education and economic development is very close and this has been realized even by the classical economist Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall and so on. The system of education and the economic development in a given social set-up are interrelated. One cannot exist without the … Continue reading Role of Education in Economic Development.

Factors affecting investment in education.

Investment in education is affected by various factors. Some of the important factors that affect investment in education will be discussed in this sub-section as here under- a. Financial condition or level of income of people: Financial condition or the level of income of the people determines the nature and magnitude of investment in education. … Continue reading Factors affecting investment in education.

Meaning, Nature and Scope of Economics of Education

Introduction : Economics of education is relatively a new field of academic discipline. The importance of systematic study of economic aspects of education were realized in the mid of twentieth century. So, the history of Economics of education is not very old. The subject matters of economics of education are concerned with both Economists and … Continue reading Meaning, Nature and Scope of Economics of Education

Principles of educational management.

Principles of educational management: The principles of educational management can be discussed are as follows: 1. Principle of Democratic Philosophy: In educational management, the manager should follow the principle of democracy instead of autocratic. He should like an individual of friend, philosopher and guide. He should discuss the all matters with his or her colleagues … Continue reading Principles of educational management.

Meaning and Definition, Nature and Scope of Educational Management.

Educational Management is an applied branch of Management like other branch of Management i.e Commercial management, Industrial Management, Financial Management etc. Unlike other branch of Management, Educational Management operates in educational organizations. So Educational Management is that branch of management which applies the theories and principles of management in the field of education. To organise … Continue reading Meaning and Definition, Nature and Scope of Educational Management.

Facts Value and Objectivity.

Science, it is claimed, is a value free. Metaphysicians may deal with values, but scientists may not, unless they treat the values as facts. Thus science gives stress on facts. What is fact? According to Goode and Hatt, fact is ‘an empirically verifiable observation’. Thus, facts are those situations or circumstances concerning which there does … Continue reading Facts Value and Objectivity.

Emergence of Sociology.

Sociology emerged as a response to the forces of change, which took place during eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe. The ideas, which are discussed again and again in early sociological writings, are thus essentially ideas of that period. The thinkers of the Enlightenment of eighteenth century affected much of the early sociology. The Enlightenment … Continue reading Emergence of Sociology.

Impact of Industrial Revolution on Society.

Introduction: The Industrial Revolution began around 1760 A.D. in England. It brought about great changes in the social and economic life of the people first in England, then in the other countries of Europe and later in other continents. In Europe, especially England, the discovery of new territories, explorations, growth of trade and commerce and … Continue reading Impact of Industrial Revolution on Society.

Major Differences between State and Nation

Some of the major differences between state and nation are as follows: In common usage, the terms State and Nation are often used as synonyms. For example, when we say ‘Western nations’ or ‘Asian nations’ or ‘African nations’, we do not mean nations but States. Similarly, the ‘United Nations’ is in reality an organisation of … Continue reading Major Differences between State and Nation

The Structural-Functional Theory of Social Stratification

The Structural-Functional Theory of Social Stratification Below are the seven propositions that make up the structural-functional theory of social stratification (Davis and Moore) as summarized by Melvin M. Tumin.* These statements argue that social stratification (inequality) is functional and it is necessary for maintaining a society's state of equilibrium (stability). Certain positions in any society … Continue reading The Structural-Functional Theory of Social Stratification

Marxist Theory of Social Stratification.

Marxist/Conflict Theory: A different view of society is taken by the conflict theorists, who see stratification as the result of the differential distribution of power in which coercion, domination, exploitation are viewed as key processes. The assumptions of the conflict theorists basically are: 1. Every society is at every point subject to processes of change, … Continue reading Marxist Theory of Social Stratification.

Meaning and Functions of Social Stratification

Social stratification refers to a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. In the United States, it is perfectly clear that some groups have greater status, power, and wealth than other groups. These differences are what led to social stratification. Social stratification is based on four major principles: Social stratification … Continue reading Meaning and Functions of Social Stratification

Meaning and Causes or Factors of Social Mobility.

Meaning of Social Mobility: Mobility stands for shift, change and movement. The change may be of a place or from one position to another. Further, change is value free i.e it cannot be said that change is for good or bad. When we prefix ‘social’ along with mobility it would imply that people or individual … Continue reading Meaning and Causes or Factors of Social Mobility.

Max Weber’s Three Types of Authority .

The philosopher and sociologist Max Weber discerns the three types of authorities- Traditional, Legal-Rational, and Charismatic; each of which correspond to a form of leadership that operate in a contemporary society. The one thing which is common in all the three authorities is “legitimacy.” A legitimate authority is justified by both the ruler and the … Continue reading Max Weber’s Three Types of Authority .

Max Weber Bureaucracy Theory.

Max Weber, a German scientist, defines bureaucracy as a highly structured, formalized, and also an impersonal organization. He also instituted the belief that an organization must have a defined hierarchical structure and clear rules, regulations, and lines of authority which govern it. Max Weber bureaucracy ideally has the following characteristics: Specialization of labor. A formal … Continue reading Max Weber Bureaucracy Theory.

Family: Meaning, Functions, Characteristics and Types.

Meaning: The family is an intimate domestic group made up of people related to one another by bonds of blood, sexual mating or legal ties. It is the smallest and most basic social unit, which is also the most important primary group found in any society. It is the simplest and most elementary group found … Continue reading Family: Meaning, Functions, Characteristics and Types.

Tribal Class Structure in India.

Tribal Society: Before we examine the structure and features of tribal society, it would be relevant to understand the meaning of the word “Tribe” as used in Sociology. According to George Peter Murdock, tribe is a social group in which there are many clans, nomadic bands, villages or other sub-groups which usually have a definite … Continue reading Tribal Class Structure in India.

Industrial Class Structure in Indian Society.

Industrial Society: A very important factor in the history of society has been the Industrial Revolution which has brought about far-reaching consequences in the structure of societies. Prior to the Industrial Revolution most workers secured their own raw materials and owned their own tools. They worked under their own roofs on their own time, and … Continue reading Industrial Class Structure in Indian Society.

Agarian Class Structure in India.

Agrarian Society: Societies are classified on the basis of dominant types of economic activity into agrarian and industrial societies. In an agrarian society the dominant type of economic activity is agricultural whereas in an industrial society factory production is the dominant type of economic activity. Only in the past century and a half has the … Continue reading Agarian Class Structure in India.

Contributions of A.R Desai in Sociology.

A.R Desai was born on April 16, 1915 at Nadiad in Gujarat and died in 1994 at Baroda. He consistently advocated and applied dialectical-historical model in his sociological studies. He closely studied the works of Marx and Engels and the writings of Trotsky. He may be regarded as one of the pioneers in introducing the … Continue reading Contributions of A.R Desai in Sociology.

A.R. Desai Views on the State.

The modern capitalist state was one of the significant themes that interested A.R. Desai. As always, his approach to this issue was from a Marxist perspective. In an essay called “The myth of the welfare state”, Desai provides a detailed critique of this notion and points to it many shortcomings. After considering the prominent definitions … Continue reading A.R. Desai Views on the State.

Impact of Socio-Religious Reform Movements in India during 19th Century .

The greatest impact of the nineteenth century socio-religious reform movements was: (1) the creation of national awakening among the masses; (2) the revival of Hinduism as a tolerant, rational religion to restore its lost prestige in the wake of Islam in the past and Christianity in the nineteenth century; (3) an onslaught on the indignities … Continue reading Impact of Socio-Religious Reform Movements in India during 19th Century .

Impacts of technology on Social Change.

Ogbum has studied the process of social change that takes place under the impact of technology from three angles: (i) Dispersion or the multiple effects of a major material invention, (ii) Convergence or the coming together of several influences of different inventions, (iii) Spiral or the circular cumulative accelerating process. (i) Dispersion: Any mechanical invention … Continue reading Impacts of technology on Social Change.

Factors affecting social changes in India.

Factors affecting social changes in India: Geographical factor (Physical environment): Social change takes place due to physical environment or geographical factor. Floods, earthquakes, famine, epidemics, fires, excessive rains, drought hot or cold climate transform the life style of people. The changing face of the earth due to advancing deserts or due to irrigation also affects … Continue reading Factors affecting social changes in India.

Role of the teacher in bringing social change .

Role of the teacher in bringing social change : Teacher is the central figure in any formal educational system. He must respond to the duty. He is regarded as an effective agent of social change. Any social change without teacher is a mere figment of imagination. The teacher should know well the needs of the … Continue reading Role of the teacher in bringing social change .

Education as an instrument of social change.

Education as an instrument of social change: Education is the most powerful instrument of social change. It is through education that the society can bring desirable changes and modernize itself. Education can transform society by providing opportunities and experiences through which the individual can cultivate himself for adjustment with the emerging needs and philosophy of … Continue reading Education as an instrument of social change.

Factors Resisting Social Change .

Factors Resisting Social Change: Social barriers: Social factors such as orthodoxy, rigid caste and class structure, public opinion, vested interests, factionalism, conflict, are the barriers to change. Cultural barriers: Conservatism, fatalism, superstitions, a feeling of pride and dignity in the old and traditional ways of life, incompatibility of new and old cultural traits, slavery and … Continue reading Factors Resisting Social Change .

Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics, Factors and Agents .

Change implies all variations in human societies. When changes occur in the modes of living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes. Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of people. It occurs because all societies are in a constant state of disequilibrium. The … Continue reading Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics, Factors and Agents .

Problems faced by minorities in India.

 Problem of Identity: a) Because of the differences in socio-cultural practices, history and backgrounds, minorities have to grapple with the issue of identity. b) This give rise to the problem of adjustment with the majority community.  Problem of Security: a) Different identity and their small number relative to the rest of the society … Continue reading Problems faced by minorities in India.

Various Religious Communities in India.

India is a land of diversities. This diversity is also visible in the spheres of religion. The major religions of India are Hinduism (majority religion), Islam (largest minority religion), Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith. India is a land where people of different religions and cultures live in harmony. This harmony … Continue reading Various Religious Communities in India.

GS Ghurye on Tribes .

Ghurye on Tribes: Ghurye considers that multiple ethnic groups were present in India prior to the entry of Aryans. Hindu culture was not imposed on tribal communities; rather an interaction with Aryan culture that was mystical, magical and spiritual got entangled with Tantric culture, magical culture and materialistic culture of different ethnic groups gave way … Continue reading GS Ghurye on Tribes .

Concepts of Indology by GS Ghurye.

Indology (G S Ghurye) Indology:- "Indology is basically the use of ancient texts and scriptures of India by the sociologists to understand the social and cultural life in India". Indology is known as the science of Indian Society. The Indological perspective claims to understand Indian Society through the concepts, theories and frameworks that are closely … Continue reading Concepts of Indology by GS Ghurye.

Talcott Parsons Concept of Social System and Patterns Variables.

Social System: Talcott Parsons is the most outstanding exponent of the social system theory.In 'A Social System' his emphasis shifted from unit act to institutional orders but the system was the primary unit of analysis. According to Parsons a social system is a system of action which has the following characteristics: 1.It involves a process … Continue reading Talcott Parsons Concept of Social System and Patterns Variables.

G.H. Mead’s Theory of Self

George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) was an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists. He is regarded as one of the founders of social psychology and the American sociological tradition in general. His major contributions are Pragmatism and Symbolic Interaction, Social Philosophy (Behaviorism), … Continue reading G.H. Mead’s Theory of Self

Principal features and functions of caste system in India .

Segmental Division of Society: The society is divided into various small social groups called castes. Each of these castes is a well developed social group, the membership of which is determined by the consideration of birth. Hierarchy: According to Louis Dumont, castes teach us a fundamental social principle of hierarchy. At the top of this … Continue reading Principal features and functions of caste system in India .

Sociological theory of Religion.

Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology. This objective investigation may include the use of both quantitative methods (surveys, polls, demographic and census analysis) and qualitative approaches such as participant observation, interviewing, and analysis of archival, historical … Continue reading Sociological theory of Religion.

Causes of Regionalism in India .

In a diverse country like India, each and every individual, community carries a kind of sub-national identity because of affinity to particular region, ethnicity, history, language, culture etc. During the process of national movement (which was a process more against outside forces and their non-discriminatory exploitation of all) all these diversities were put to the … Continue reading Causes of Regionalism in India .

Effects and Solutions of Regionalism.

The Effects Of Regionalism Regionalism has both positive and negative effects on nation, but negative effects are more. On positive side it helps in strengthening the nation. The linguistic organization of states, giving autonomy to various regions in North-East, creation of new states have helped the nation as these have removed the fissures which if … Continue reading Effects and Solutions of Regionalism.

Features and Causes of Social Movements

Features: Some of the features of social movements are as follows: i. The sense of belonging and group consciousness is very important for a social movement. Such consciousness can be brought about through active participation of the group members. ii. Social movements lead to the creation of an entirely new social, economic, and political order. … Continue reading Features and Causes of Social Movements

Social Movements: Meaning, Causes, Types, Revolution and Role!

The Meaning of Social Movements: In the society a large number of changes have been brought about by efforts exerted by people individually and collectively. Such efforts have been called social movements. A social movement may, therefore, be defined as “a collectively acting with some continuity to promote or resist a change in the society … Continue reading Social Movements: Meaning, Causes, Types, Revolution and Role!

Memory level of teaching

Memory level of teaching: This is a thought less teaching level and is considered as lowest level of teaching. In this level of teaching, emphasis is laid on the presentation of facts and information and its cramming. This level is considered mere reproduction of learnt material by students through recognition and recall. Hence, memory level … Continue reading Memory level of teaching

Understanding Level of Teaching

Understanding Level of Teaching: It includes both memory and insight. Memory level teaching is the pre-requisite for understanding level of teaching. In understanding level of teaching, the teacher develops the mental capacities of students in such a manner that the students can now understand and apply the laws and principles in a confident manner. In … Continue reading Understanding Level of Teaching

Reflective level of teaching

Reflective level of teaching: This is the highest level of teaching which starts when the understanding level of teaching is over. It is problem centered’ teaching, in this, the learner is stimulated to react critically. The teacher creates such a problem before the pupils which arouses so much mental tension in pupils that they start … Continue reading Reflective level of teaching

Basic Teaching model

Basic Teaching model: this model was propounded by Robert Glaser in 1962. In this model psychological principles and laws are used to realize the teaching objectives. This model has the following elements. i) Instructional objective:- it means those objectives which the teacher has to do before the start of his teaching i;e., analyzing the content, … Continue reading Basic Teaching model

STRUCURE OF TEACHING—THREE VARIABLES

STRUCURE OF TEACHING—THREE VARIABLES: Structure of teaching consists of variables which operate in the process of teaching and create learning conditions or situations. A variable has been defined as “any response or behavior which is manifested in different categories under different situations e;g effect of various amounts of study on students. Teaching process involve the … Continue reading STRUCURE OF TEACHING—THREE VARIABLES

Difference between teaching and training

Difference between teaching and training: Training refers to shaping of habits and behavior while teaching refers to constructing of habits and behavior. It means that training starts after only preliminary form of teaching. Training is restricted to enable the students to acquire a particular ability or interest in definite field. Training focuses on physical and … Continue reading Difference between teaching and training

MAXIMS OF TEACHING

MAXIMS OF TEACHING: Educationists like the Herbert, Spencer and Comenius and teachers engaged in actual classroom teaching have evolved certain simple notions and working ways which prove helpful in the task of teaching. They are known as maxims of teaching. Maxims of teaching have been discovered not invented. They are simply statements of the way … Continue reading MAXIMS OF TEACHING

FUNCTIONS OF TEACHING

FUNCTIONS OF TEACHING: Variables of teaching perform three major functions which are: 1. Diagnostic function 2. Prescriptive function 3. Evaluative function Just as a doctor diagnoses the disease first, then he prescribes the medicines for the cure of the disease and finally he studies the effects of the drugs on the patients and the treatment … Continue reading FUNCTIONS OF TEACHING

Hindu Temple Architecture : Chalukyas

Noticeable features of Chalukya temples When we talk about Chalukyas, remember that there are at-least two Chalukyas. Chalukayas of Badami (Vatapi) ruled Karnataka region around 7th century AD. They were followed by Western Chalukyas (Kalyani Chalukyas) by around 11th century AD. The Chalukya temples are noticeable for three basic plans. They are : Design of … Continue reading Hindu Temple Architecture : Chalukyas

Second World War : Causes and Consequences.

We have seen the causes and consequences of the First World War in the last post. The first world war itself sowed the seeds for Second World War, primarily because of the humiliating Treaty of Versailles. We shall see the causes and consequences of the Second World War (WWII) in this post. Causes of Second … Continue reading Second World War : Causes and Consequences.

Great Depression: Causes Effects and Suggestions.

The Great Depression of the 1930s was a severe economic problem which affected the whole world, and United States of America (USA) in particular. This was a significant event between two world wars. Great Economic Depression started in 1929 and lasted until the 1940s. What is a Depression? Depression is a severe and prolonged downturn … Continue reading Great Depression: Causes Effects and Suggestions.

First World War : Causes and Consequences.

First World War (World War I) is considered as one of the largest wars in history. The world’s great powers assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (British Empire, France and the Russian Empire) versus the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary). WWI lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. The Two Groups: Allies … Continue reading First World War : Causes and Consequences.